Turkish Policy Quarterly Vol 4, No. 2 (Summer 2005)
"Democracy in the Middle East: Inevitable or Impossible?"

Nigar Göksel

Nigar Göksel
ESI Analyst

From the desk of the editor

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Süleyman Demirel

Exclusive interview with Süleyman Demirel
Former President of the Republic of Turkey

"If there is no peace between (the countries of the Western Balkans), they will not prosper. If the EU does not include them in its structure, conditions will not get better for these countries. If Europe wants to be an undivided, democratic, peaceful and wealthy entity, the Balkans should be integrated into the EU. I mean all the Balkan countries including Albania, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Moldavia and Turkey. If not, then the EU will have not united the entire Europe."

TPQ-interview: "Turkey and democratisation in the Middle East"

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Bruce Pitcairn Jackson

Bruce Pitcairn Jackson
President of the Project on Transitional Democracies

"The Black Sea region is rapidly becoming part of Europe. With the exception of Croatia, all current candidates for EU membership are from the Black Sea region… (On the other hand) the democracies of the Black Sea lie on the knife edge of history which separates the politics of nineteenth century imperialism from European modernity."

TPQ-article: "The future of democracy in the Black Sea region"

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Fraser Cameron

Fraser Cameron
Director of Studies at the European Policy Centre (EPC)

"In encouraging the reform process (among Mediterranean countries), the EU has to take into account a profound difference between its neighbours in Eastern Europe and those around the southern shores of the Mediterranean. The European neighbours all want to join the EU and therefore have no alternative but to engage in painful reforms. That has been the single most important reason for the profound transformations that have taken place in Central and Eastern Europe. The EU is entitled to 'impose' upon its European neighbors - and potential member countries. The EU does not have the same rights in the case of its southern neighbours."

TPQ-article: "Promoting political and economic reform in the Mediterranean and the Middle East"

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Emre Erdogan

Emre Erdogan
Founding partner of Infakto research workshop

"Despite significant improvements, Turkish democracy is still fragile and open to reversals. The security paranoia is the most important reason behind this fragility. If Security concerns in Turkey decrease with time; Turkey will be a much more democratic country and will better sustain its democratic regime. A democratic Middle East will provide a necessary, secure, international environment for Turkey. The success of Turkish democracy is very dependent on the democratization of the region and a democratic Turkey will be the most important facilitator of democratic change in the Middle East."

TPQ-article: "A fourth alternative for Turkey: A democratic Middle East"

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Martin Beck

Martin Beck
Senior Fellow for Near Eastern Studies, German Institute for Middle East Studies

"Originally motivated by strategic motives, the different European and American perspectives on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict gradually transformed into fixed divergent views. The U.S. built a 'special relationship' with Israel, whereas the EU cultivated a policy of 'fair balance' towards the two conflict parties in the Near East."

TPQ-article: "From divergent views to a common policy: U.S. and EU approaches to promoting democratization in the Middle East"

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Paul Collier

Paul Collier
Professor at the Department of Economics, Oxford University

"One key early task in Iraq is to move the political bargaining process on from who has power, to how power is restrained. It is easier to build checks and balances into the system before it becomes corrupted by patronage politics rather than once corrupt interests have become powerful."

TPQ-article: "Iraq: A perspective from the economic analysis of civil war"

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Ayad Allawi

Ayad Allawi
Former Interim Prime Minister of Iraq

"Iraqis should perceive that the (political) institutions are for Iraqis and accountable to Iraqis. This and only this will give real identity to our institutions and render them functional. The absence of pride, self reliance, self assurance and esteem may lead to psychological apathy and indifference."

TPQ-article: "The democratization process in Iraq"

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H. Kaan Nazli

H. Kaan Nazli
Research analyst at Eurasia Group

"The European Neighborhood Policy provides an anchor for associated countries, and strengthens the current trend of increased integration of Northern Africa into the European economic system, which seems to have benefited Turkey’s trade relations with the countries."

TPQ-article: "Turkey and north Africa: Challenge and opportunity"

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