This section offers 60 key texts and background documents on the EU accession process of Slovakia, covering key EU documents, books and articles. More general documents on the EU's enlargement process can be accessed here.
Slovak politics and EU accession
The following books, articles and laws all relate to different aspects of political live in Slovakia over the last 20 years, from the political deficiencies of the Meciar era and developments during the EU accession process to the return of populist politics after the 2006 parliamentary elections. Unfortunately, most of them are not available online.
- Martin Butora, "Nightmares from the Past, Dreams of the Future", Journal of Democracy, 18/4, 2007, pp. 47-55.
- Martin Butora and Zora Butorova, "Slovakia's Democratic Awakening", Journal of Democracy, 10/1, 1999, pp. 80-95.
- Tim Haughton and Marek Rybar, "A Tool in the Toolbox: Assessing the Impact of EU Membership on Party Politics in Slovakia", Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, 25/4, pp. 540-63.
- Mary Heimann, Czechoslovakia. The State that Failed, Yale Univ. Press, 2009.
- Stanislav J. Kirschbaum, A History of Slovakia. The Struggle for Survival, Second Edition, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
- Kevin Deegan Krause, "Slovakia's Second Transition", Journal of Democracy, 14/2, 2003, pp. 65-79.
- Ivan Krastev, "Between elite and people: Europe's black hole", Open Democracy, 3 August 2006.
- Paul Lendvai, The Hungarians. A Thousand Years of Victory in Defeat, Princeton UP, 2003.
- Geoffrey Pridham, "Status Quo Bias or Institutionalisation for Reversibility?: The EU's Political Conditionality, Post-Accession Tendencies and Democratic Consolidation in Slovakia", Europe-Asia Studies, 60/3, 2008, pp. 423-454.
- Geoffrey Pridham, "The European Union's Democratic Conditionality and Domestic Politics in Slovakia: the Meciar and Dzurinda Governments Compared", Europe-Asia Studies, 54/2, 2002, pp. 203-227.
- Martin M. Simecka, "The Fico Threat", Salon, 17 March 2009.
- Milada Anna Vachudova, Europe Undivided. Democracy, Leverage, and Integration after Communism, Oxford Univ. Press, 2005.
Identity and the Hungarian minority
Here a selection of articles and books on the Hungarian minority in Slovakia, how it was affected through the EU accession process and what happened after accession. Further below you find English translations of the state language law, related implementation guidelines and comments by the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities and the Venice Commission.
Books and academic articles
- Jean-Bernard Adrey, "Minority Language Rights Before and After the 2004 EU Enlargement: The Copenhagen Criteria in the Baltics", Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 26/5, pp. 453-468.
- Rainer Bauböck (ed), Dual Citizenship for Transborder Minorities? How to Respond to the Hungarian-Slovak Tit-for-tat? EUI Working Papers, EUDO Citizenship Observatory, European University Institute, 2010
- Erika Harris, "Moving Politics Beyond the State: The Hungarian Minority in Slovakia", Perspectives, 28, 2007, pp. 43-62.
- Carter Johnson, "The Use and Abuse of Minority Rights: Assessing past and Future EU Policies towards Accession Countries of Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe", International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, Vol. 13, 2006, pp. 27-51.
- Zuzana Meszarosova-Lamplova, "Magyars and Slovaks in Southern Slovakia – Exercising Language Rights", Kalman Petőcz (ed.), National Populism and Slovak-Hungarian Relations in Slovakia, 2006-2009. Forum Minority Research Institute, 2009, pp. 167-179, 173.
- Nadya Nedelsky, "Constitutional nationalism's implications for minority rights and democratization: the case of Slovakia", Ethnic and Racial Studies, 26/1, 2003, pp. 102-128.
- Kerem Öktem, "Kurish in Turkey, Turkish in Bulgaria", FreeSpeechDebate, 17 February 2012.
- Kalman Petocz (ed), National Populism and Slovak-Hungarian Relations in Slovakia 2006-2009, Forum Minority Research Institute, 2009.
- Kalman Petocz, "National Populism and Electoral Behaviour" in Kalman Petocz (ed), National Populism and Slovak-Hungarian Relations in Slovakia 2006-2009, Forum Minority Research Institute, 2009, pp. 99-165.
- Kirsten Shoraka, Human Rights and Minority Rights in the European Union, Routledge, 2010.
- Kyriaki Topidi, "The Limits of EU Conditionality: Minority Rights in Slovakia", Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, ECMI, 1/2003.
- Stefan Wolff, "‘Bilateral' ethnopolitics after the Cold War: The Hungarian minority in Slovakia, 1989-1999", Perspectives on European Politics and Society, 2/2, 2001, pp. 159-195.
Key legislative texts and comments in English
- "State language law of the Slovak Republic", as amended on 30 June 2009.
- "Principles of the government" (on the implementation of the amended state language law), approved on 16 December 2009.
- OSCE, "Opinion and Recommendations of the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities on amendments to the ‘Law on the State Language of the Slovak Republic'", 22 July 2009.
- Venice Commission, "Opinion on the Act on the State Language of the Slovak Republic", adopted 15/16 October 2010.
The following selection of texts on Slovakia's EU accession process focuses on the crucial period of 1998 to 2002. Following years of rule by the controversial Meciar government, Slovakia was viewed as trailing behind the other candidate states. In an effort to catch up with the Central European frontrunners, it eventually managed to complete the EU accession negotiations in a remarkable 34 months.
- Vladimir Bilcik, "Can Slovakia Catch up? The Implications of EU Accession Talks a Year After the Helsinki Summit", DUPI Working Paper 2001/1, Copenhagen: DUPI, 2001, pp. 1-24.
- Jan Figel and Miroslav Adamis, "The Accession of the Slovak Republic", in: The Accession Story: the EU from 15 to 25 countries, ed. by George Vassiliou, Oxford Univ. Press 2007, pp. 318 – 342.
- Karen Henderson, "Euroscepticism or Europhobia: Opposition attitudes to the EU in the Slovak Republic", Sussex University European Institute paper No. 50, 2001.
- Geoffrey Pridham, "Slovakia's Relations with the European Union: Political Conditionality, its Effects and its Limitations", in: Slovak Foreign Policy Affairs, Fall 2002, pp. 75 – 89.
- Jacques Rupnik, Jan Zielonka (ed.), The Road to the EU: The Czech and Slovak Republics, vol.1, Manchester University Press 2003.
The major agreements between Slovakia and the EU during the accession process:
- 2003 Treaty of Accession
- 2001 Accession Partnership
- 1999 Accession Partnership
- 1998 Accession Partnership
Key European Council Conclusions
Three European Council decisions were crucial for Slovakia. The 1997 Luxembourg summit launched the accession process for all ten East European former communist countries. Due to its unsatisfactory democratic record, however, Slovakia was left out of the first group of candidates to begin accession talks. The EU eventually decided to launch accession negotiations with Slovakia – along with Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta and Romania – at the 1999 Helsinki European Council. The December 2002 Copenhagen summit confirmed the conclusion of negotiations with ten accession countries, including Slovakia.
- Brussels European Council conclusions welcoming the Commissions proposal to welcome Slovakia to the eurozone, on 1 Jannuary 2009, see paragraph 42 (19/20 June 2008)
- Copenhagen European Council conclusions on closing accession negotiations with 10 accession countries, including Slovakia (12-13 December 2002)
- Helsinki European Council conclusions on opening accession negotiations with Slovakia, Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta and Romania (10-11 December 1999)
- Luxembourg European Council conclusions launching the accession process with 10 CEE countries, including Slovakia (12-13 December 1997)
EU monitoring reports
A selection of official reports on Slovakia prepared by DG Enlargement, including the 1997 opinion on Slovakia's application (which pointed to a number of problems in democratic governance) and all regular reports on Slovakia prepared by the European Commission:
- EC, Comprehensive Monitoring Report on Slovakia's preparations for membership 2003
- EC, Regular Report Slovakia 2002
- EC, Regular Report Slovakia 2001
- EC, Regular Report Slovakia 2000
- EC, Regular Report Slovakia 1999
- EC, Regular Report Slovakia 1998
- EC, Commission Opinion on Slovakia's Application for Membership of the EU (15 July 1997)
Economic catch-up during accession process
This section includes various reports, studies and articles on Slovakia's successful economic reforms from the late 1990s until after accession.
- Dusan Zachar (ed), Economic and Social Measures in Slovakia, Institute for Economic and Social Reform (INEKO), August 2009. For more publications of the institute on reforms in Slovakia click here
- Isabell Koske, Raising the Flexibility of the Slovak Economy during the Catch-up Phases, OECD Economics Department Working Papers No 680 (11 March 2009)
- Matthew Reynolds, "Once a Backwater, Slovakia Surges", The New York Times (28 December 2004)
- Sikula, M. et al., Economic and Social Context of Slovakia's Integration into the European Union, Summary (Bratislava: Institute of Slovak and World Economy SAIS, 2003)
- World Bank, Slovakia – Joining the EU (2003)
- World Bank, Slovak Republic - Strategy for growth and European integration (1998)
- Info-portal for Slovak citizens on wide variety of EU related topics (managed by the Slovak Government Office for EU Affairs)
- The official portal of the Visegrad Group, with extensive information on business, culture and links to many institutions in each of the four countries.
13 March 2012