Back Sofia - Next 

Balkan Strongmen: Bulgaria's Zhivkov

Simon Malley interview with Todor Shivkov - Bulgaria extends a friendly hand - 1982 - Booklet by Bulgarian regime
Cover of a special booklet published by the Bulgarian government
in 1982. It featured an interview by Simon Malley with Todor Shivkov:
"Bulgaria extends a friendly hand". Photo: CAMERA

Bernd J. Fischer is one of the foremost historians of Albania writing in English. However the book which we have chosen here and which was published in 2007 is one which he edited and contributed to. It is a collection of essays and profiles of the dictators and strongmen who dominated the Balkans in the last century. Divided into two parts the first takes in Zog of Albania, King Aleksandar of Yugoslavia, King Carol of Romania, Boris of Bulgaria, Ataturk of Turkey, Metaxas of Greece and Ante Pavelic, the fascist quisling leader of wartime Croatia. The second part covers the post 1945 period: Enver Hoxha of Albania, Tito of Yugoslavia, Ceausescu of Romania, Zhivkov of Bulgaria, Papadopoulos and the Greek colonels and finally Serbia's Milosevic. For this extract we have chosen an assessment of Todor Zhivkov, the Bulgarian communist leader who dominated the country for almost all of the communist period. The chapter was written by Stefan Krause a specialist in modern Balkan politics. Zhivkov was born in 1907, the son of peasants, became a Marxist in the early 1930s, became a member of the Politburo in 1954, assumed full control in 1962, was overthrown in 1989 and died in 1998. Above all argues Krause, Zhivkov was a master tactician.

He made his way to the top as a compromise figure underestimated by almost everybody else in the leadership of Communist Bulgaria. Once he got to the top, he managed to strengthen his position by forming temporary tactical alliances with one strong figure against another. In this way he eliminated one competitor after another until he was the undisputed leader of his party and country. Once in power, his political acumen continued to serve him well. He would routinely build up a "crown prince" only to get rid of him after a few years and establish a new one. Thus Zhivkov insured that nobody became strong enough to threaten his own position. At the same time he managed for over thirty years to secure the backing of the party leader in Moscow. It was only when Gorbachev set out on the path of Perestroika, while the situation in Bulgaria was deteriorating significantly, that his recipe failed. As his subordinates in Sofia realized that they needed to remove him in order to save the system, Zhivkov found himself without a sponsor in Moscow who could keep him in power. In the end his personal regime fell apart in just a few months, only to be followed by the collapse of the system he had worked all his life to implement and perpetuate.

The dilemma of Zhivkov and his legacy is manifold: during the forty-five years of Communism Bulgaria was propelled from an agrarian country into the industrial age, but at the same time the command economy that was built under Communism was ineffective and proved unable to cope with new requirements. The population of Bulgaria in 1989 was much better educated than it had been in 1944 and on average enjoyed a much higher standard of living; at the same time most people had been deprived of political participation for about half a century, and the cost of building a civil society was enormous and is still substantial. Political culture, political participation, media and the economy

Balkan Strongmen: Dictators and Authoritarian Rulers of South Eastern Europe. Ed: Bernd J. Fischer. 2007.
[pp.  390-91 / Hurst]

January 2009
Tim Judah

 Back Sofia - Next 
  1. Istanbul: Pamuk's City
  2. Istanbul: Swimming across the Bosphorus
  3. Salonika and the Jews
  4. Salonica: Slaves and Trade
  5. Thessalonika: 1923
  6. Ohrid: Rise and Fall
  7. Tornado of Dust - 1944
  8. Awake Romania - 1989
  9. Novi Sad: Nest of the Serbian nation
  10. Nis: War Capital, 1915
  11. Belgrade and the Selenites
  12. 1996: Serbia Calling
  13. Belgrade Train Station - 1964
  14. Srebrenica: Vengeance
  15. Srebrenica: Blood
  16. Srebrenica: July 1995
  17. Mealtime - Interwar years in Travnik
  18. Dayton: The Napkin Shuttle
  19. London Buses in Sarajevo
  20. The Museum and Bosnian Identity
  21. Foča: The Bosniak
  22. Kosovo: The Swiss Front
  23. Mitrovica: 1908
  24. Pristina: Kosovo like Namibia?
  25. City without traffic - Pristina 1966
  26. Durham in Pristina - 1908
  27. Tirana: 1962
  28. Zog's Tirana
  29. The Kotor - Constantinople Express
  30. Kotor and the Montenegrins
  31. The Rabbi of Stolac
  32. Dubrovnik: England, Wine and Wool
  33. Cetinje: Nikola Under the Elm
  34. Cetinje: 1858
  35. Dalmatia: Ships & Grapes
  36. Prophet of Yugoslavism
  37. The head of the world
  38. 1919: Mushrooms and Lies
  39. Sofia: Bulgaria's Jews during WWII
  40. Zamfirovo: Rural livelihoods in the mid-1990s
  41. Kosovo
  42. Romania: 1914
  43. Istanbul: Food and the frugal Turks
  44. Micklagard: Surprising, cosmopolitan Constantinople
  45. Sukhumi: The history of the region became ashes
  46. Black Sea: The coming of steam and rail
  47. Mestrovic: Motherhood and the Victor
  48. Rizvanovici, Bosnia: Gnashing
  49. Down the Danube with Magris: Ruse
  50. From Pristina to Tskhinvali
  51. Serbia, Historians and Hitler's War
  52. Balkan Strongmen: Bulgaria's Zhivkov
  53. Sarajevo: The Siege Within
  54. Turkey: Osman's Dream
  55. Durres 1961: Beijing on Sea
  56. Cetinje: Eggs for the Ladies
  57. Bosnia: Land of Immigrants
  58. Ottoman Croatia
  59. Harem: All the Sultan's Women
  60. Sibiu: Regime Change, European Style
  61. 1929: The Balkans and the Great Crash
  62. Rumeli and how the Balkans became the Balkans
  63. 1948: Stalin, Kosovo and Swallowing Albania
  64. Transforming Turkey: the 1950s
  65. McMafia and the Balkans
  66. 1916: Serbia in Corfu
  67. Princes Amongst Men
  68. Limp Shevardnadze
  69. Knin: War and Suburbia
  70. In the Mountains of Poetry