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Demonstration at the Mayor's Office, Freedom Square, Tbilisi, Georgia, 2003.
Photo: Government of Georgia

In November 2003, Georgia's long-time ruler, president Eduard Shevardnadze, was pushed to resign following weeks of non-violent protests in the streets of Tbilisi. On 4 January 2004, the lawyer Mikheil Saakashvili was elected president with 96 percent of the vote. He was 37 at the time; all of his most trusted associates and ministers

Suggested readings

For reliable and insightful journalistic accounts of the Rose Revolution there are a large number of excellent articles on Of these we recommend: Georgia: President Shevardnadze Resigns (2003); Tbilisi Revels After Shevardnadze's Resignation (2003); Provisional Authorities in Georgia Grapple with Centrifugal Political Forces (2003).

The OpenDemocracy website also has a number of good articles on the Rose Revolution and its aftermath. For more on Georgia, please see the OpenDemocracy Caucasus Debate.

Lincoln Mitchell lived in Georgia prior to the Rose Revolution, working for the US-based National Democratic Institute (NDI) in Tbilisi. His years of experience resulted in a book published in 2008. Uncertain Democracy is essential reading for anyone interested in the story of the Rose Revolution. Mitchell

April 2010

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