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The impact of citizenship

German citizenship ceremony in Berlin-Neukölln
Heinz Buschkowsky (right), mayor of Berlin-Neukölln, at a ceremony for new German citizens

In August 2008 a study in the North Rhine-Westphalia region (the largest in Germany, with 18 million inhabitants) looked at three different social groups – foreign citizens, naturalised foreigners and German nationals by birth – in order to measure the effectiveness of integration policies.

There data concerning education and employment proved striking:

In 2006, the qualifications necessary for university entry were attained by

30 percent
27 percent


of naturalised foreigners
of German nationals by birth

The data in relation to self-employment showed only a small gap between both groups:

10.7 percent
10.1 percent


of naturalised foreigners
of native born Germans

The self-employment rate indicates that it is particularly naturalised women who want to "stand on their own feet."

7.5 percent
6.6 percent
7.1 percent
4.4 percent


of naturalised foreign women are self employed
of German-born women are self employed
of naturalized Turkish women are self employed
of Turkish women are self employed

Concerning the labour force participation there was only a small difference between German nationals by birth and others. (see table 1). There was a big difference, however, when it came to unemployment rates (see table 2).

Table 1: Labour force participation in North Rhine Westphalia

73.5 percent
71.3 percent
66 percent
55 percent
35.6 percent


German nationals
Naturalized foreigners
Persons with migration background
Turkish citizens
Turkish women


Table 2: Unemployment in North Rhine Westphalia

9.9 percent
16.7 percent
8.5 percent
26.0 percent
19.4 percent


general population
naturalized foreigners
Germans by birth
Turkish citizens
naturalized Turks

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