Turkish Policy Quarterly Vol 9, No. 2 (Summer 2010)
"Sustaining, Sharing and Securing Energy"

Nigar Göksel

Nigar Göksel
ESI Senior Analyst

From the desk of the editor

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Taner Yıldız

Taner Yıldız
Taner Yıldız is the Minister of Energy and Natural Resouces of the Republic of Turkey.

Turkey will rapidly continue its endeavors towards transportation of the Caspian, Middle Eastern and Middle Asian energy resources to Europe and the world market. Moreover, Turkey will put forth its whole effort for the development of new projects through bilateral cooperation to increase prosperity and enhance the peace of the region.

TPQ-article: "Turkey's Energy Economy and Future Energy Vision"

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Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu

Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu
Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu is President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. He is also a member of the Grand National Assemby of the Republic of Turkey.

The decision to bring into the Council of Europe the countries of Central and Eastern Europe after the fall of the Berlin Wall was one of the most courageous political decisions ever. Although very few people in Europe object to the idea of democracy, some of the countries that applied to join the Council of Europe had never experienced democracy in their past and very few of their people at the time knew precisely what it meant. It was not only a matter of reforming state institutions and changing legislation (a huge task in itself!), but first and foremost, of changing mentalities and creating a democratic culture. This is not a one-way process, in which "old" democracies decant some of their knowledge to the "new" ones. The solutions that have worked for some are not necessarily applicable for others, because the entire context is different. This is where the Parliamentary Assembly is making an invaluable contribution.

TPQ-article: "The State of Democracy in Europe and the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe"

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Rifat Hisarcıklıoğlu

Rifat Hisarcıklıoğlu
Rifat Hisarcıklıoğlu is the President of the Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey (TOBB), Foreign Economic Relations Board of Turkey (DEİK) and Deputy President of Eurochambers.

In meeting the energy challenge, the global society has to change its current mentality of confrontation and forgo seeing international politics as zero-sum game. A logic based on collaboration and innovation and emphasis on "positive-sum game" is needed. Global society can only meet its great energy challenge through collaboration and innovation, and with the participation of market forces. Interdependence, rather than dependence should be the key concept in designing the new global energy architecture.

TPQ-article: "The Global Energy Challenges and Turkey: Private Sector Perspective"

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William M. Arnold

William M. Arnold
William M. Arnold is Professor in the Practice of Energy Management at Jones Graduate School of Business, Rice University, Houston, Texas.

This article discusses the initiatives undertaken by different levels of the U.S. government and the private sector which, according to the author, holds the potential to change energy equations. After a brief analysis on the cap and trade measure, the author lists five factors which can limit the growth of green houses gases in the U.S.

TPQ-article: "Israeli-Turkish tensions and beyond"

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Ziya Akkurt

Ziya Akkurt
Ziya Akkurt is Board Member and CEO of Akbank.

Global economies have been caught in a perfect storm, which nearly devastated the international financial system. Timely and decisive intervention by governments and financial institutions helped restore stability. However, the full impact of systemic risk and of certain persistent problems has yet to be fully resolved. This paper evaluates the experience of Turkey in successfully weathering the recent crisis. It highlights the significant role played by the country's robust banking sector in enhancing the economy's resilience to the crisis.

TPQ-article: "The Claim of Turkish Economy to be a Regional Hub Through a Robust Banking Sector"

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Mamuka Tsereteli

Mamuka Tsereteli
Mamuka Tsereteli is an Assistant Professor at the School of International Service at American University, Washington DC. He is director of the Center for Black Sea-Caspian Studies.

There is enough natural gas in Caspian region to justify construction of the major pipelines and other elements of infrastructure to connect gas fields in Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan to Europe. The region can supply aggregate of up to 60 billion cubic meters of natural gas every year, allowing countries of Central and Eastern Europe to reduce their dependency on Russian gas and increase competition and diversity in European markets in general. However, recent political and strategic developments in and around the region, as well as global political and economic realities will not allow implementation of the large scale infrastructure projects any time soon. This article argues that the Southern Gas Corridor will be developing at a slower pace, through small scale interconnector projects such as those connecting Turkey with Greece and Greece with other neighbors.

TPQ-article: "Connecting Caspian Gas to Europe: No Large Scale Infrastructure Development in Near Future"

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Gulmira Rzayeva
Gulmira Rzayeva is Research Fellow at Center for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

The article discusses the rising importance of gas reserves of the Caspian region in a rapidly changing environment and analyses the role of Azerbaijan as one of the main gas producer in the region. Huge investments in exploitation and development of new gas fields in Azerbaijan might tremendously increase the figure of estimated gas reserves of the country and make Azerbaijan able to meet the actual and potential customers in mid-and long-term perspectives. Having an indispensable geographic position, Azerbaijan envisages and participates in all the possible routes of supplying gas including East-West, North-South and South-North axis.

TPQ-article: "Azerbaijan: Eurasia's New Energy Nexus?"

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Bezen Balamir Coşkun
Bezen Balamir Coşkun is Assistant Professor in the Department of International Relations at Zirve University.

Since the 1960s the Middle East has become one of the hot spots of geopolitics.The rich energy resources of the region have attracted global attention. During the Cold War, the usual suspects of the energeopolitics of the Middle East were the petroleum exporting countries of the region, the U.S. and the Soviets. With the end of the Cold War, the energy equilibrium of the region has drastically changed. China and India have appeared as rapidly industrialized powers, Turkey and Iran consolidated their position as regional powers, and Russia was resurrected as a new energy superpower. Within this context, this article assesses the new energy order and discusses Turkey, Iran and Persian Gulf States as the key regional players in current energy equations of the Middle East.

TPQ-article: "Energizing the Middle East: Iran,Turkey and Persian Gulf States"

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Mert Bilgin

Mert Bilgin
Mert Bilgin is an Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science and International Relations at Bahçeşehir University.

This article defines Turkey's energy vision with regard to its foreign policy. It elaborates how the shift in Turkish foreign policy can be related to energy issues. The paper points to contradictions which would emerge from a mere political perspective that undermines the role played by energy. Turkey wants to take advantage of its geographic location, and is launching an energy agenda that requires new pipelines, regional relations and massive investments. As the article shows, the interaction between state strategy, regional cooperation and private sector involvement in the energy sector strongly affects the shift in Turkish foreign policy.

TPQ-article: "Energy and Turkey's Foreign Policy: The Link Between State Strategy, Regional Cooperation and Private Sector Involvement"

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Inessa Baban and Zaur Shiriyev
Inessa Baban is a Ph.D candidate in geopolitics at Paris-Sorbonne University of France. She is a former visiting scholar at Center for Strategic Studies under the President of Azerbaijan. Zaur Shiriyev is a foreign policy analyst at the same think tank.

This article analyzes the evolution of U.S. foreign policy in the South Caucasus through three concepts, "soft power", "hard power" and "smart power" which have been developed under the administrations of Bill Clinton, George W. Bush and Barack Obama respectively. The authors also aim to identify how the US strategy towards this region has been perceived in Azerbaijan, which, due to its geographical position, energy resources and geopolitical environment, is one of the "geopolitical pivots of Eurasia".

TPQ-article: "The U.S. South Caucasus Strategy and Azerbaijan"

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Tina Flegel
Tina Flegel is a political scientist currently pursuing a Ph.D at the Otto-Suhr-Institut for political science of the Free University Berlin.

Turkey and Russia have signed an agreement committing Russian Atomstroy export to build a nuclear power plant with a capacity of 4.8 GWe on Turkey's black sea coast. Russia will operate and fully own the facility. Politicians and businessmen present the deal as a step into a bright Turkish energy future while keeping silent to the public about the dangers and down falls nuclear power holds. Yet, Germany has a longstanding history of a diverse and strong anti-nuclear movement that offers many interesting lessons to every Turkish citizen interested in health, the environment and peace. This article elaborates on the German movement's arguments and forms of protest.

TPQ-article: "Public Protests Against Nuclear Power in Germany"

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Hakob Chakryan

Hakob Chakryan
Hakob Chakryan is a Political Analyst for the Armenian daily, Azg. He is also the resident expert for the Urban Foundation for Sustainable Development.

Armenia - Turkey rapprochement is important not only for alternative regional energy solutions but also for the establishment of peace and stability in the Caucasus. The United States, in the context of President Obama's policies emphasizing engagement rather than confrontation, has encouraged Turkey to refrain from isolating Armenia. The West is by now convinced that Azerbaijan cannot serve as an alternative to Russia for natural gas supplies. One reason for this is Azerbaijan's small production volume. Another is the instability of the transit route, highlighted again by the August 2008 "South Ossetia War".

TPQ-article: "Turkey's Policy Towards Armenia and Energy Security in the South Caucasus"

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Stanislav Pritchin
Stanislav Pritchin is Ph.D student at the department of Political Science in Moscow State University. He is an expert on the CIS countries.

The global financial crisis led to a serious narrowing of the EU gas market – the main market for Azerbaijan in the future. Baku is forced to find a solution for their surplus of gas production. The Azerbaijani strategy in the gas sphere is a diversified export policy with a huge list of partners, whereby Baku has more than twenty consumers for its oil in different parts of the world, just as they have already achieved in the oil market. This article evaluates the alternative paths taken by the Azerbaijani government in constructing its export policy.

TPQ-article: "The New Azeri Gas Strategy"

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