Back Timisoara - Next 

Awake Romania - 1989

Copyright © by Alan Grant
Roman Catholic cathedral

In recent years Timisoara (Temesvar in Hungarian) has begun to experience an economic boom. An historic city, Timisoara likes to boast that it was the first city in Europe to be lit by electric street lamps in 1867. Historically it has always been a very mixed town with large proportions of its population consisting of Hungarians, Germans, Serbs and Jews. Thanks to history and emigration it is far less mixed now. In 1930, Romanians constituted about one quarter of the city's population and Germans and Hungarians about one third each. Today the Germans make up only 2% and Hungarians about 7.5%.

And yet, it was an incident involving a troublesome Hungarian priest in Timisoara, which was to change the history of Romania. When the communist authorities attempted to evict Laszlo Tokes and his family from his flat just before Christmas in 1989, first his own Hungarian congregation and then Romanians too started to gather to prevent this from happening. It was the spark that lit the fire of the Romanian revolution. In this extract Tokes recalls how the exasperated mayor of Timisoara, sensing that the situation was running out of control, told Tokes and the crowd on December 16 that he would not be evicted, a promise the crowd demanded in writing. "In one hour," the mayor promised, "I will have the document in an hour."

It was a crucial mistake. An hour later the excuses began to arrive. It was Saturday; the offices in Bucharest were closed; nobody was available in the legal department. He might as well have poured petrol on fire. The crowd began booing and I was not able to calm them.

At about two o'clock the deputy mayor arrived. He was a tall man in his forties with a courteous expression that very quickly altered when he saw the mood of the crowd. "This situation is intolerable," he said decisively, "and extremely dangerous. For everybody." He paused. "You have one hour to get rid of these people. If you do not, we will not allow the situation to continue." He stared at me coldly. "The matter is well understood, Mr Tokes," His voice began to rise in volume. "You do not want to get rid of them. You organised them. You organised this demonstration. You were warned what would happen. You are responsible for everything that is happening here." His voice returned to normal. "So you will send the people away. Do you understand me?"

He sat down and waited, arrogant in his expensive suit.

The crowd continued to grow all day and then, at half past seven some in the crowd began to sing a long prohibited song: "Awake Romania!"

I looked out of the window and was moved by the sight and sound of Romanians singing. It was a striking token that this was a demonstration not just by our minority church, but by the whole population of Timisoara.

In fact it was the beginning of the Romanian revolution. Nine days later, on Christmas Day, Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife Elena were summarily executed after their flight from Bucharest. Seventeen years and one week later, on January 1, 2007 Romania joined the European Union.

With God, For the People. Laszlo Tokes, as told to David Porter. Laszlo Tokes. 1990.
[pp. 155-56 / Hodder & Stoughton]

January 2007
Tim Judah

 Back Timisoara - Next 
  1. Istanbul: Pamuk's City
  2. Istanbul: Swimming across the Bosphorus
  3. Salonika and the Jews
  4. Salonica: Slaves and Trade
  5. Thessalonika: 1923
  6. Ohrid: Rise and Fall
  7. Tornado of Dust - 1944
  8. Awake Romania - 1989
  9. Novi Sad: Nest of the Serbian nation
  10. Nis: War Capital, 1915
  11. Belgrade and the Selenites
  12. 1996: Serbia Calling
  13. Belgrade Train Station - 1964
  14. Srebrenica: Vengeance
  15. Srebrenica: Blood
  16. Srebrenica: July 1995
  17. Mealtime - Interwar years in Travnik
  18. Dayton: The Napkin Shuttle
  19. London Buses in Sarajevo
  20. The Museum and Bosnian Identity
  21. Foča: The Bosniak
  22. Kosovo: The Swiss Front
  23. Mitrovica: 1908
  24. Pristina: Kosovo like Namibia?
  25. City without traffic - Pristina 1966
  26. Durham in Pristina - 1908
  27. Tirana: 1962
  28. Zog's Tirana
  29. The Kotor - Constantinople Express
  30. Kotor and the Montenegrins
  31. The Rabbi of Stolac
  32. Dubrovnik: England, Wine and Wool
  33. Cetinje: Nikola Under the Elm
  34. Cetinje: 1858
  35. Dalmatia: Ships & Grapes
  36. Prophet of Yugoslavism
  37. The head of the world
  38. 1919: Mushrooms and Lies
  39. Sofia: Bulgaria's Jews during WWII
  40. Zamfirovo: Rural livelihoods in the mid-1990s
  41. Kosovo
  42. Romania: 1914
  43. Istanbul: Food and the frugal Turks
  44. Micklagard: Surprising, cosmopolitan Constantinople
  45. Sukhumi: The history of the region became ashes
  46. Black Sea: The coming of steam and rail
  47. Mestrovic: Motherhood and the Victor
  48. Rizvanovici, Bosnia: Gnashing
  49. Down the Danube with Magris: Ruse
  50. From Pristina to Tskhinvali
  51. Serbia, Historians and Hitler's War
  52. Balkan Strongmen: Bulgaria's Zhivkov
  53. Sarajevo: The Siege Within
  54. Turkey: Osman's Dream
  55. Durres 1961: Beijing on Sea
  56. Cetinje: Eggs for the Ladies
  57. Bosnia: Land of Immigrants
  58. Ottoman Croatia
  59. Harem: All the Sultan's Women
  60. Sibiu: Regime Change, European Style
  61. 1929: The Balkans and the Great Crash
  62. Rumeli and how the Balkans became the Balkans
  63. 1948: Stalin, Kosovo and Swallowing Albania
  64. Transforming Turkey: the 1950s
  65. McMafia and the Balkans
  66. 1916: Serbia in Corfu
  67. Princes Amongst Men
  68. Limp Shevardnadze
  69. Knin: War and Suburbia
  70. In the Mountains of Poetry